Most ISPA portrait artists begin with a camera study of the subjects, created in the environments most natural to the subject, or at the artists studio, where props, lighting and other materials are readily at hand. These studies are evaluated, narrowed to several specific images, and then are compiled into the final study for the client’s approval. From this study, the portrait is carefully refined for composition, accuracy of likeness, idealizing form, and other elements of design. The painting process varies from artist to artist, using the vast mediums and technology available to them. Final portrait images may be giclee prints on canvas or watercolor paper. Images may also be transferred directly to canvas. Some artist chose to use hand-applied brush strokes to complete the portrait prior to varnishing the image. The preparation of these portraits may take from two to four months from the time of the client order.